Confusing Words in English Language. Free Reading..


A flower known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants.
31. Jasminum Officinale Common Jasmine or Jessamine
There is an elegance in the Jasmine which added to its fragrance renders it an object of universal admiration.
It grows naturally at Malabar, and in several parts of India, yet has been long inured to our climate, so as to thrive and flower extremely well, but never produces any fruit in England. It is easily propagated by laying down the branches, which will take root in one year, and may then be cut from the old plant, and planted where they are designed to remain it may also be propagated by cuttings, which should be planted early in the autumn, and guarded against the effects of severe frosts.
When these plants are removed, they should be planted either against some wall, pale, or other fence, where the flexible branches may be supported. These plants should be permitted to grow rude in the summer, otherwise there will be no flowers, but after the summer is past, the luxuriant shoots should be pruned off, and the others must be nailed to the support.
There are two varieties of this with variegated leaves, one with white, the other with yellow stripes, but the latter is the most common these are propagated by budding them on the plain Jasmine, they require to be planted in a warm situation, especially the white striped, for they are much more tender than the plain, and in very severe winters their branches should be covered with mats or straw to prevent their being killed. Millers Gard. Dict.
32. Mesembryanthemum Dolabriforme Hatchet leavd Fig Marigold
Though many Latin names of plants, as Geranium, Hepatica, Convolvulus, &,c. are more familiar to the ear, and more generally used than their English ones, yet Mesembryanthemum though used by some, appears too long to be generally adopted, its English name of Fig marigold is doubtless to be preferred.
The Fig marigolds are a very numerous tribe, chiefly inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope, no less than thirty three species are figured in that inestimable work the Hortus Elthamensis of Dillenius. As most of these plants grow readily from slips, or cuttings, and require only the shelter of a common greenhouse, and as they recommend themselves to our notice, either from the extreme singularity of their foliage, the beauty of their flowers, or the peculiarity of their expansion, so they are a favourite class of plants with many.
The present species is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and is particularly distinguished by having leaves somewhat resembling a hatchet, whence its name, it is as hardy as most, and flowers as freely, but its blossoms fully expand in the evening and night only.
It is very readily propagated by cuttings.
33. Aster Tenellus Bristly leavd Aster
Most of the numerous species of this genus flower about Michaelmas, hence their vulgar name of Michaelmas Daisy, a name exceptionable not only on account of its length, but from its being a compound word. Aster, though a Latin term, is now so generally received, that we shall make no apology for adopting it.
We are indebted to North America for most of our Asters, but the present species, which is omitted by Miller, and is rather a scarce plant in this country, though not of modern introduction, being figured by Plukenet and described by Ray, is a native of Africa, and, like a few others, requires in the winter the shelter of a greenhouse.
It is particularly distinguished by having very narrow leaves with short bristles on them, and by its blossoms drooping before they open.
It is a perennial, flowers in September and October, and may be propagated by slips or cuttings.
The plant from whence our drawing was made, came from Messrs. Gordon and Thompsons Nursery, Mile End.
34. Browallia Elata Tall Browallia
Of this genus there are only two species, both natives of South America, the elata, so called from its being a much taller plant than the demissa, is a very beautiful, and not uncommon stove or green house plant, it is impossible, by any colours we have, to do justice to the brilliancy of its flowers.
Being an annual, it requires to be raised yearly from seed, which must be sown on a hot bed in the spring, and the plants brought forward on another, otherwise they will not perfect their seeds in this country. Some of these may be transplanted into the borders of the flower garden which are warmly situated, where, if the season prove favourable, they will flower and ripen their seeds, but, for securitys sake, it will be prudent to keep a few plants in the stove or green house.
As these plants have not been distinguished by any particular English name, Miller very properly uses its Latin one, a practice which should as much as possible be adhered to, where a genus is named in honour of a Botanist of eminence.
35. Crepis Barbata Bearded Crepis or Purple eyed Succory Hawkweed
Grows spontaneously in the south of France, about Montpelier, also, in Spain, Italy, Sicily, and elsewhere in the south of Europe is one of the most common annuals cultivated in our gardens. It begins flowering in July, and continues to blossom till the frost sets in.
No other care is necessary in the cultivation of this species than sowing the seeds in the spring, in little patches, on the borders where they are to remain, thinning them if they prove too numerous.
Miller calls this species bœ,tica, and improperly describes the centre of the flower as black, as also does Herman in all the specimens we have seen, it has evidently been of a deep purple colour, or, as Linnaeus expresses it, atropurpurascens.
36. Lilium Bulbiferum Orange Lily
The common orange or red Lily is as well known in the English gardens as the white Lily, and has been as long cultivated here. This grows naturally in Austria and some parts of Italy. It multiplies very fast by offsets from the roots, and is now so common as almost to be rejected, however, in large gardens these should not be wanting, for they make a good appearance when in flower if they are properly disposed, of this sort there are the following varieties
The orange Lily with double flowers,
The orange Lily with variegated leaves,
The smaller orange Lily.
These varieties have been obtained by culture, and are preserved in the gardens of florists. They all flower in June and July, and their stalks decay in September, when the roots may be transplanted and their offsets taken off, which should be done once in two or three years, otherwise their branches will be too large, and the flower stalks weak. This doth not put out new roots till towards spring, so that the roots may be transplanted any time after the stalks decay till November. It will thrive in any soil or situation, but will be strongest in a soft gentle loam, not too moist. Mill. Dict.
Bears the smoke of London better than many plants.
Varies with and without bulbs on the stalks.
37. Chironia Frutescens
Of the genus Chironia, ten species are enumerated in Prof. Murrays last edition of the Syst. Vegetab. of Linnaeus, exclusive of the Chironia Centaurium which we first added to this genus in the 42d number of the Flora Londinensis.
Of these, the frutescens is the most shewy, and therefore the most cultivated.
It is a native of different parts of Africa.
The flowers are produced from June to autumn, and the seeds ripen in October. This plant should be placed in an airy glass case in winter, where it may enjoy a dry air, and much sun, but will not thrive in a warm stove, nor can it be well preserved in a common greenhouse, because a damp moist air will soon cause it to rot.
The seed of this plant should be sown in small pots filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a moderate hot bed, sometimes the seeds will lie a long time in the ground, so that if the plants do not appear the same season, the pots should not be disturbed, but preserved in shelter till the following spring, and then plunged into a fresh hot bed, which will bring up the plants in a short time if the seeds are good. When the plants are fit to remove, they should be transplanted into small pots, four or five in each pot, then plunged into a moderate hot bed, where they must have a large share of air in warm weather, when they have obtained some strength, they must be gradually inured to the open air, when exposed abroad, they should be mixed with such plants as require little water, placed in a warm situation, and screened from heavy rains, which are apt to rot them. The cuttings of this sort take root if properly managed.
38. Viburnum Tinus
We scarcely recollect a plant whose blossoms are so hardy as those of the Laurustinus, they brave the inclemency of our winters, and are not destroyed but in very severe seasons.
The beauties of this most charming shrub can be enjoyed by those only who cultivate it at some little distance from town, the smoke of London being highly detrimental to its growth.
It is a native of Portugal, Spain, and Italy.
Botanists enumerate many varieties of the Laurustinus, and so considerably do some of these differ, that Miller has been induced to make two species of them, which he distinguishes by the names of Virburnum Tinus and V. lucidum, the last of these is the most ornamental, and at the same time the most tender, there are some other trifling varieties, besides those, with variegated leaves, or the gold and silver striped.
It is only in very favourable situations that these shrubs ripen their seeds in England, hence they are most commonly propagated by layers, which readily strike root Miller says, that the plants raised from seeds are hardier than those produced from layers.
It thrives best in sheltered situations and a dry soil.
39. Franklins Tartar
The Carnation here exhibited is a seedling raised by Mr. Franklin, of Lambeth Marsh, an ingenious cultivator of these flowers, whose name it bears we have not figured it as the most perfect flower of the kind, either in form or size, but as being a very fine specimen of the sort, and one whose form and colours it is in the power of the artist pretty exactly to imitate.
The Dianthus Caryophyllus or wild Clove is generally considered as the parent of the Carnation, and may be found, if not in its wild state, at least single, on the walls of Rochester Castle, where it has been long known to flourish, and where it produces two varieties in point of colour, the pale and deep red.
Flowers which are cultivated from age to age are continually producing new varieties, hence there is no standard as to name, beauty, or perfection, amongst them, but what is perpetually fluctuating, thus the red Hulo, the blue Hulo, the greatest Granado, with several others celebrated in the time of Parkinson, have long since been consigned to oblivion, and it is probable, that the variety now exhibited, may, in a few years, share a similar fate, for it would be vanity in us to suppose, that the Carnation, by assiduous culture, may not, in the eye of the Florist, be yet considerably improved.
To succeed in the culture of the Carnation, we must advert to the situation in which it is found wild, and this is observed to be dry and elevated, hence excessive moisture is found to be one of the greatest enemies this plant has to encounter, and, on this account, it is found to succeed better, when planted in a pot, than in the open border, because in the former, any superfluous moisture readily drains off, but, in guarding against too much wet, we must be careful to avoid the opposite extreme.
To keep any plant in a state of great luxuriance, it is necessary that the soil in which it grows be rich, hence a mixture of light loam, and perfectly rotten horse or cow dung, in equal proportions, is found to be a proper compost for the Carnation. Care should be taken that no worms, grubs, or other insects, be introduced with the dung, to prevent this, the dung, when sifted fine, should be exposed to the rays of the sun, on a hot summers day, till perfectly dry, and then put by in a box for use, still more to increase the luxuriance of the plants, water it in the spring and summer with an infusion of sheeps dung.
The Carnation is propagated by seeds, layers, and pipings, new varieties can only be raised from seed, which, however, is sparingly produced from good flowers, because the petals are so multiplied, as nearly to exclude the parts of the fructification essential to their production.
The seed must be sown in April, in pots or boxes, very thin, and placed upon an East border.
In July, transplant them upon a bed in an open situation, at about four inches asunder, at the end of August transplant them again upon another bed, at about ten inches asunder, and there let them remain till they flower shade them till they have taken root, and in very severe weather in winter, cover the bed with mats over some hoops.
The following summer they will flower, when you must mark such as you like, make layers from, and pot them. Elliss Gardeners Pocket Calendar.
The means of increasing these plants by layers and pipings, are known to every Gardener.
Such as wish for more minute information concerning the culture, properties, divisions, or varieties, of this flower, than the limits of our Work will admit, may consult Millers Gard. Dict. or the Florists Catalogues.
40. Trillium Sessile
Of this genus there are three species, all of which are natives of North America, and described by Miller, in his Gardeners Dictionary, where the genus is called American Herb Paris, but as the Paris and Trillium, though somewhat similar in the style of their foliage, are very different in their parts of fructification, we have thought it most expedient to anglicise Trillium, it being to the full as easily pronounced as Geranium, and many other Latin names now familiar to the English ear.
This species takes itstrivial name of sessile, from the flowers having no footstalk, but sitting as it were immediately on the end of the stalk.
The figure here exhibited was taken from a plant which flowered in my garden last spring, from roots sent me the preceding autumn, by Mr. Robert Squibb, Gardener, of Charleston, South Carolina, who is not only well versed in plants, but indefatigable in discovering and collecting the more rare species of that country, and with which the gardens of this are likely soon to be enriched.
It grows in shady situations, in a light soil, and requires the same treatment as the Dodecatheon and round leavd Cyclamen. We have not yet had a fair opportunity of observing whether this species ripens its seeds with us though of as long standing in this country as the Dodecatheon, it is far less common, hence one is led to conclude that it is either not so readily propagated, or more easily destroyed.

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